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Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Nickname: "City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City"
Motto: "Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue)"
Location
Location in Pennsylvania
Coordinates 39°57'12?N, 75°10'12?W
Government
Country
State
  County United States
Pennsylvania
  Philadelphia
Founded
Incorporated October 27, 1682
October 25, 1701
Mayor John F. Street (D)
Geographical characteristics
Area  
  City 369.4 km²  (142.6 sq mi)
    Land   349.9 km²  (135.1 sq mi)
    Water   19.6 km² (7.6 sq mi)
  Urban 4,660.7 km² (1,799.5 sq mi)
  Metro 13,256 km² (5,118 sq mi)
Elevation 12 m  (39 ft)
Population  
  City (2004) 1,470,151
    Density   4,201.8/km² (10,882.8/sq mi)
  Urban 5,325,000
  Metro 5,800,614
Time zone
  Summer (DST) EST (UTC-5)
EDT (UTC-4)
Website: http://www.phila.gov
Philadelphia, (commonly called Philly) and known as The City of Brotherly Love (from Greek: F??ad??fe?a, /fi.la.'ğ?l.fja/, "brotherly love" from philos "loving" and adelphos "brothers") is the fifth most populous city in the United States and the largest in population and area in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Philadelphia is coterminous with Philadelphia County.GR6 The population of the city (at the 2000 census) is 1,517,550. Philadelphia is the second largest city on the U.S. East Coast (after New York City), and a major commercial, education, and cultural center for the East Coast.
The Philadelphia metropolitan area is the fourth largest in the U.S. by the current official definition, with some 5.8 million people.
Philadelphia is one of the oldest and most historically significant cities in the United States. During part of the 18th century, the city was the second capital and most populous city of the United States. At that time, it eclipsed Boston and New York City in political and social importance, with Benjamin Franklin playing an extraordinary role in Philadelphia's rise.

Contents
1 History
2 Geography and climate
2.1 Geography
2.1.1 Adjacent Counties
2.2 Climate
2.3 Cityscape
2.4 Buildings and architecture
2.5 Neighborhoods
2.6 Suburbs
3 Economy
4 People and culture
4.1 Demographics
4.2 Annual fairs and events
4.3 Food
4.4 Notable residents
4.5 Media
4.5.1 Print
4.5.2 Television
4.5.3 Radio
4.5.3.1 See also
4.6 Museums, art collections, and sites of interest
4.7 Sports
4.8 Crime
4.8.1 See also
4.9 Telecommunications
5 Government and politics
6 Education
6.1 Public schools
6.2 Private schools
6.3 Higher education
7 Transportation
7.1 Airports
7.2 Roads
7.2.1 References
7.3 Rail

History
Independence Hall, as it appears today.Before Europeans arrived, the Delaware (Lenape) Indian town of Shackamaxon was located where Philadelphia now stands, specifically the Germantown neighborhood. Although the area lay within the bounds described in the 1632 Charter of Maryland, the Calvert family's influence never reached this far north, and the first European settlers were mostly Swedes (see New Sweden), who called it Wiccacoa. A congregation was formed in 1646 on Tinicum Island by Swedish missionary Johannes Campanius; in 1700, the group built Gloria Dei Church, also known as Old Swedes'.
Philadelphia is a planned city, founded and developed in 1682 by William Penn, a Quaker. The city's name means "brotherly love" in Greek (F??ad??f?a). Penn hoped that the city, as the capital of his new colony founded on principles of freedom and religious tolerance, would be a model of this philosophy. During early immigration by Quakers and others, immigrants who purchased land in the city also received farmland outside the city; this was intended to allow the population to leave the city easily. Penn also mandated the construction of alleyways and open spaces, in the hope of controlling fires and disease, which were then common problems in London and other major cities.
Independence Hall, 18th CenturyPhiladelphia was a major center of the independence movement during the American Revolutionary War. The Declaration of Independence and US Constitution were drafted here and signed in the city's Independence Hall. The United States Marine Corps also began here on November 10, 1775, when Samuel Nicholas began recruiting men at Tun Tavern.
For a time in the 18th century, Philadelphia was the largest city in the Americas north of Mexico City, and the fourth largest under the rule of the British crown (after London, Bristol, and Dublin).
In 1790, as the result of a compromise between a number of Southern congressmen and Alexander Hamilton, then Secretary of the Treasury, the seat of the United States Government was moved from Federal Hall in New York to Congress Hall in Philadelphia, before assuming its current site in Washington, DC. In exchange for locating a permanent capital on the banks of the Potomac, the congressmen agreed to support Hamilton's financial proposals. Philadelphia served as capital for a decade, until 1800, when the Capitol building in the new federal city of Washington, DC was opened.
The city limits have been coterminous with Philadelphia County since The Act of Consolidation, 1854. Until then, the city consisted only of the area bounded by South and Vine Streets and the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. The expansion incorporated present-day West Philadelphia, South Philadelphia, North Philadelphia, and Northeast Philadelphia, as well as Germantown and many smaller communities.
1888 German map of Philadelphia. The two most noticeable streets are Broad (north-south) and Market (east-west). Two rivers, for a time, bounded the city: to the left, the Schuylkill, and to the right, the Delaware, separating Pennsylvania from New Jersey.An early railroad center, Philadelphia was the original home of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, the world's largest builder of steam locomotives (which eventually relocated to nearby Eddystone, Pennsylvania). The Pennsylvania Railroad, once America's largest railroad by revenue and traffic volume and at one time the largest public corporation in the world, was headquartered in the city, as was its merger successor, the Penn Central, and in turn its freight railroad successor, Conrail.
In 1876 Philadelphia hosted the World's Fair, known as the Centennial Exposition. Memorial Hall and the expansive mall in front of it are remnants of this fair.
In 1926, the city held the Sesquicentennial Exposition to celebrate the nation's 150th birthday.
In 1976, Philadelphia was one of the participating cities in the United States Bicentennial observances that took place nationwide.
Center City Philadelphia panorama, from 1913.
Geography and climate

Geography
A simulated-color satellite image of Philadelphia taken on NASA's Landsat 7 satellite. The Delaware River is visible in this shot.According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 369.4 km² (142.6 mi²). 349.9 km² (135.1 mi²) of it is land and 19.6 km² (7.6 mi²) of it (5.29%) is water. Bodies of water include the Delaware River, Schuylkill River, Cobbs Creek, Wissahickon Creek, and Pennypack Creek.
The lowest point in the city lies 10 feet above sea level near Fort Mifflin in Southwest Philadelphia at the convergence of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. The highest point is in Chestnut Hill, at 432 feet above sea level, near Evergreen Place, just north and west of Evergreen Avenue.

Adjacent Counties
The city of Philadelphia is coterminous with Philadelphia County. Adjacent counties are:
Montgomery County (north)
Bucks County (northeast)
Burlington County, New Jersey (east)
Camden County, New Jersey (southeast)
Gloucester County, New Jersey (south)
Delaware County (west)

Climate
The climate is temperate, with four seasons. Summers are hot and often muggy, with humidity tending to run high in July and August. Fall and spring are mild. The rainfall is generally spread throughout the year, with between six and nine wet days per month, at an average annual rate of 1068 mm (42 in). Winters are cold, but only a few winter days see the temperature drop below -10° C (14° F). Snowfall is variable, with some winters bringing little and others blanketed by more frequent snowstorms. The city center and inner New Jersey suburbs generally have light snow, with heavier falls occurring to the north and west of the metropole. January lows average -4° C (25° F) and highs average 4° C (39° F). July lows average 21° C (70° F) and highs average 30° C (86° F) although during heat waves, summer highs can cross 35° C (95° F) with the heat index due to humidity running as high as 43° C (110° F). The lowest temperature ever officially recorded was -22° C (-7° F) in 1984, and the highest was 40° C (104° F) in 1966. Early fall and late winter are generally the driest, with February being the driest month with an average of 69.8 mm (2.74 in) of precipitation. Summers are typically humid and rainy, and July gets the highest average precipitation at 111.5 mm (4.38 in).

Cityscape
8th and Market Street, showing the Strawbridge and Clothier department store, 1910s.Penn's surveyor, Thomas Holme, laid out the city in a strict grid, with streets running either north-south or east-west. The north-south streets are numbered ascendingly from Front (instead of First), along the Delaware River, with the main north-south thoroughfare, Broad Street (instead of 14th) running midway between the two rivers. The east-west streets, many of them named for trees, e.g., Chestnut, Walnut, Locust, and Spruce parallel the main thoroughfare named High Street by Penn, but called Market Street since at least the early 18th century. Six blocks south of Market is South Street, the original southern boundary of the city. Vine Street, three blocks north of Market, was the original northern boundary.
5th and Market Street, today. Visible in this photo are the studios of KYW-TV (left) and the Bourse building.Holme also planned five public parks, one at the intersection of High and Broad Streets in the very center of the city, now occupied by City Hall, and four others surrounding it now called Washington Square, Rittenhouse Square, Logan Square and Franklin Square. The eastern edge of Rittenhouse Square is on 18th St., four blocks west of City Hall, while the western edge of Washington Square is between 7th and 8th, about six and a half blocks east of City Hall. Both are the same distance south of City Hall. Both Logan Square and Franklin Square are located the same distances east and west of City Hall as Washington and Rittenhouse and two to three blocks north of Market Street, reflecting the southern squares.
The post-World War II era would see further changes. Under the leadership of Edmund N. Bacon, the Philadelphia City Planning Commission organized a master plan for the city, creating a variety of special planning, redevelopment, development districts and areas to coordinate their efforts. Projects that were headed by the new master plan were major redevelopment of Center City, including the Penn Center Area (replacing an immense, elevated railroad connector, locally known as the "Chinese Wall," located north of Market and West of Broad), Market East and Penn's Landing; new development and expansion in University City (focused mainly on the University of Pennsylvania); as well as the opening up of development on the fringes of the city, the Far Northeast and South Philadelphia Sports Complex. One of his enduring innovations is a group of small, semi-enclosed parks in the Society Hill residential area, connected by brick footpaths.
Bacon's efforts would also see changes in the transportation of the city, with the inclusion of the Center City Rail Connector, Vine Street Expressway, Delaware Expressway, and improvements to the Schuylkill Expressway. Many of Bacon's ideas, though not entirely as he had envisioned, can be seen today, with the basis of his master plan still influencing development in the city.

Buildings and architecture
Main article: Buildings and architecture of Philadelphia
A view of City Hall from the NE corner, 2005Philadelphia's architectural history dates back to Colonial times and has included a wide range of styles, sometimes showcased within a range of several blocks. Most of the city's historic landmarks are in Old City and the Historical District in east Center City.
For almost a century, Philadelphia's most visible structure was its baroque City Hall building and William Penn tower. Since the 1980s, modern skyscrapers have been erected west of City Hall eclipsing Penn's statue. As of 2006, the tallest structures are One and Two Liberty Place. In 2007, the Comcast Center, upon its expected completion, will become the tallest building in Philadelphia. Currently, thirteen skyrises, residential and commercial , are under construction, six have begun prep work, and seventeen are still in planning. Also nine skyrises are currently under renovation, and seven more are still in planning. Many of these projects will include multiple skyrises, adding to the number of actual buildings. Another seven cultural and commercial projects have begun, which consist of a slot facility, turning the Philadelphia Naval Yard into a suburban style business park with urban amenities, new parks, educational towers, state of the art schools,and others. Another ten are in planning.[1] Philadelphia has entered a urban renewal.
Most of the city's residential neighborhoods are rowhouse communities, noted for streets lined with attached, single-family homes. Newer duplexes and single homes, as well as some older mansions and estates, are more common in the city's outskirts.

Neighborhoods
See also: List of Philadelphia neighborhoods
Philadelphia has many neighborhoods, each of which has its own identity. Many of these neighborhoods coincide with the borough and townships that made up Philadelphia County before their absorption by the city. These include Chestnut Hill, East Falls, Fishtown, Fox Chase, Frankford, Germantown, Grays Ferry, Kensington, Manayunk, Mount Airy, North Philadelphia, Northern Liberties, Olney, Overbrook, Port Richmond, Powelton Village, Queen Village, Roxborough, South Philadelphia, University City, and many others. Prominent neighborhoods in Center City include Chinatown, Fairmount, Old City, Rittenhouse Square, and Society Hill.

Suburbs
Further information: Delaware Valley
Philadelphia also has a significant suburban area which depends on its economy and public transportation (provided by SEPTA), including areas of southeastern Pennsylvania (including the historic Main Line), southern New Jersey and northern Delaware.

Economy
City Hall at night, from Broad Street, 2005Philadelphia's economy is heavily based upon manufacturing, refining, food, and financial services. The city also has its own stock exchange.
The city is home to many major Fortune 500 companies, including cable television and internet provider Comcast, insurance companies CIGNA and Lincoln Financial Group, energy company Sunoco, food services company Aramark, Crown Holdings Incorporated, Rohm and Haas Company, the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline, Boeing helicopters division, and automotive parts retailer Pep Boys.
The Federal government plays a large role in Philadelphia as well. The city served as the capital city of the United States, before the construction of Washington, D.C. Today, the East Coast operations of the United States Mint are based near the historic district, and the Federal Reserve Bank's Philadelphia division is based there as well.
Due in part to the historical presence of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and the large ridership at 30th Street Station, Amtrak also maintains a significant presence in the city. These jobs include customer service representatives and ticket processing and other behind-the-scenes personnel, in addition to the normal functions of the railroad.
Because of the presence of the federal government, the city has a large contingent of law firms. The city is also a national center of law due to the prestigious University of Pennsylvania Law School and the Temple University Beasley School of Law. Drexel University also is opening a new College of Law in the fall of 2006.
See also: List of companies based in the Philadelphia area

People and culture

Demographics
Main article: Demographics of Philadelphia
City of Philadelphia
Population by year [2]
1790 - 28,522
1800 - 41,220
1810 - 53,722
1820 - 63,802
1830 - 80,462
1840 - 93,665
1850 - 121,376
1860 - 565,529
1870 - 674,022
1880 - 847,170
1890 - 1,046,964
1900 - 1,293,697
1910 - 1,549,008
1920 - 1,823,779
1930 - 1,950,961
1940 - 1,931,334
1950 - 2,071,605
1960 - 2,002,512
1970 - 1,948,609
1980 - 1,688,210
1990 - 1,585,577
2000 - 1,517,550
2005 - 1,463,281
As of the census² of 2000, there were 1,517,550 people, 590,071 households, and 352,272 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,337.3/km² (11,233.6/mi²). There were 661,958 housing units at an average density of 1,891.9/km² (4,900.1/mi²). As of the 2004 Census estimations, there were 1,463,281 people, 658,799 housing units, and the racial makeup of the city was 40.0% White, 45.2% African American, 5.2% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, from 5.8% other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.7% of the population.
Of the 590,071 households, 27.6% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.1% were married couples living together, 22.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.3% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.22.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,746, and the median income for a family was $37,036. Males had a median income of $34,199 versus $28,477 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,509. About 18.4% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.3% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over.
The ethnic makeup of the city is 32.5% African American, 13.6% Irish, 9.2% Italian, 6.6% Puerto Rican, 6.4% German, and 4.3% Polish.
Philadelphia has the second largest Irish, Italian, and Jamaican populations, the third largest Puerto Rican population, and the fourth largest African American population in the nation. In recent years, the Hispanic and Asian American populations have significantly increased. Hispanics, mostly Puerto Ricans, have settled throughout the city, especially around El Centro de Oro. The Asian population was once concentrated in the city's thriving Chinatown, but now Korean Americans have come to Olney, and Vietnamese have forged bazaars next to the Italian Market in South Philadelphia. Indians and Arabs have come to Northeast Philadelphia along with Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. The West Indian population is concentrated in Cedar Park. Germans, Greeks, Chinese, Japanese, English, Pakistanis, Iranians, and other ethnic groups can be found throughout the city.

Annual fairs and events
A group of "comic" mummers in the 2005 paradeAnnual fairs and events unique to or closely associated with Philadelphia include:
The Mummers Parade, held New Year's Day on Broad Street
The Greek Picnic, a reunion and celebration of African-American college fraternities
The Wing Bowl, a chicken wing eating competition
Philadelphia Flower Show, the premier horticultural show in the U.S., held in February.
Philadelphia Fringe Festival
Philadelphia Folk Festival
Philadelphia Film Festival
Philadelphia International Gay & Lesbian Film Festival
Philadelphia International Auto Show [3]
Unity Day
OutFest/PrideFest
The Philadelphia Antiques Show, generally regarded as the best Americana antiques show in the nation, held in early April.
"Spring Fling" at the University of Pennsylvania.

Food
Main article: Cuisine of Philadelphia
Philadelphia is the home of many culinary institutions, both gourmet and humble local staples. Philadelphia has more restaurants scoring a 29 in the 2005 Zagat Restaurant Guide than any other city.
The city is commonly identified with the cheesesteak, which is claimed as a local invention. Also well known are its hoagies, soft pretzels and Italian ice (known in Philadelphia as "water ice", pronounced "wooder ice").

Notable residents
For a more comprensive list of notable past and present residents of the city, see: List of people from Philadelphia.
Philadelphia has been home to many people of note, the most famous of whom is probably Benjamin Franklin, who (along with the others in the Continental Congresses) helped shape the city along with the country and the world. Later, as United States Capital, Philadelphia was home to President George Washington for several years.
Philadelphia also has been a center of significant and diverse musical talent, including: the rhythm and blues styles of Patti LaBelle, Teddy Pendergrass, Boyz II Men, Glenn Lewis, and Kindred the Family Soul; the jazz of John Coltrane, Grover Washington, Jr., McCoy Tyner, Stan Getz, and Sun Ra; the '50s rock 'n' roll of Fabian, Bobby Rydell, and Chubby Checker; the rock music of Todd Rundgren, the Dead Milkmen, Hall & Oates, and Pink; the Neo Soul of Musiq, Floetry, and Jill Scott; the electronic sounds of Josh Wink, and Robbie Tronco; and the opera of Marian Anderson and Mario Lanza.
Philadelphia is also home to a sizeable Hip-Hop community, with numerous artists such as The Roots, Bahamadia, Eve (rapper), Cassidy, Beanie Sigel, Freeway (rapper), Jedi Mind Tricks, the Mountain Brothers, and the legendary DJ Jazzy Jeff (of DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince fame), among many others.
Grammy-Award-winning artist John Legend began his professional music career while attending the University of Pennsylvania and award-winning country music artist Tim McGraw played small venues during his fledgling career in Philadelphia while his father, Tug McGraw, was a World Series-winning pitcher for the Phillies.
Juno-Award-winning artist Charlie Biddle began his professional jazz career while growing up in his native Philadelphia and attending Temple University.
Bill Cosby was born and raised in Philadelphia as was Hall-of-Fame Basketball legend, Wilt Chamberlain, Hollywood legends and actors include Grace Kelly, Mario Lanza, Will Smith, Kevin Bacon, Seth Green, John Barrymore and others, like Richard Gere, were born in Philadelphia, but moved elsewhere in their youths. Peter Boyle graduated from La Salle University in North Philadelphia, and Katharine Hepburn was educated at Bryn Mawr College, on the Pennsylvania Main Line. Kathryn Morris (of TV's Cold Case, set in Philly), was born in Ohio but attended Philadelphia's Temple University.
Former heavyweight boxing champion Joe Frazier resides in Philadelphia and operates legendary Joe Frazier's Gym.
Filmmaker M. Night Shyamalan has set most of his movies in or around Philadelphia, including Wide Awake, The Sixth Sense, Unbreakable, The Village and Signs.
Former "Saturday Night Live" cast members Tina Fey and Cheri Oteri hail from the suburb of Upper Darby; rock guitarist Todd Rundgren and singer/songwriter Jim Croce were also Upper Darby residents. Gilmore Girls actress Liza Weil was a longtime resident of northwestern suburb Lansdale in her younger years (though she was born in New Jersey), and occasionaly still does theater in Philadelphia and its suburbs during summer hiatuses.

Media

Print
The city is served by two major daily newspapers, The Philadelphia Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News.
Established in 1884, The Philadelphia Tribune is America's oldest, and the Greater Philadelphia Region's largest, daily newspaper serving the African-American community.
Minor papers include the Philadelphia Bulletin, which was revived as a daily paper in 2004. Weekly newspapers include Philadelphia Business Journal, Philadelphia Weekly, the Philadelphia City Paper, the South Philly Review and the Philadelphia Gay News. Philadelphia Magazine, a monthly, covers the entire metropolitan area.

Television
The metropolitan area is served by stations of six major television networks, ABC (WPVI, Ch. 6), CBS (KYW, Ch. 3), NBC (WCAU, Ch. 10), PBS (WHYY, Ch. 12), UPN (WPSG, Ch. 57), The WB (WPHL, Ch. 17) and Fox (WTXF, Ch. 29), as well as several PBS and independent stations.

Radio
Philadelphia's highest rated radio stations are adult contemporary B101.1 WBEB, urban adult contemporary WDAS 105.3FM, and all-news radio station KYW-AM 1060.
In 2005, Philadelphia became the largest city in the United States without a modern rock-format radio station, in part because of the difficulty such a station has in gaining market share from the city's two active rock-format stations, WMMR and WYSP. But that didn't last long. In December and January (2005, 2006), WXRK in New York City flipped to Free FM, making New York the largest market without a modern rock format. In late 2005, WYSP was replaced by Free-FM, a talk-rock hybrid based upon the listening hour. Y100 had formerly been a modern rock station, but its format was changed to rhythmic top 40 in early 2005 by parent company Radio One.
Philadelphia's current sports talk radio station, WIP 610AM, became the city's "Pioneer Radio Voice" on March 17, 1922. The station, which was owned and operated by the Gimbel Brothers Department Store, was the city's first radio station. WHYY-FM (90.9 FM) is Philadelphia's NPR affiliate. WHYY-FM produces Fresh Air.
Other popular stations include WUSL (98.9, aka Power 99FM), which plays the mainstream urban format, 92.5 WXTU (formerly WIFI 92), which plays country music, 1210AM WPHT, a talk station known as "The Big Talker", Smooth Jazz WJJZ 106.1 (the former Eagle 106), which plays jazz, 98.1 WOGL, which plays oldies, and WMGK 102.9 (formerly Magic 103), the town's only classic rock station.
Stations that were once popular in years past, but no longer have the high ratings they once had, include: WFIL 560, the once great top 40 station of the 60's and 70's (Famous 56), now with a religious format, WNTP 990, a news talk station who as WIBG (Wibbage) was another big top 40 station that pioneered rock & roll music in the 1950's, WPEN 950, which had a nostalgic music format for 25 years (1979-2004) and twice had an oldies format, now home to syndicated sports talk, and WNWR 1540, a daytime only station that was home to Philadelphia's first country music station (as WRCP) in the 60's and 70's, later to become oldies Geator Gold Radio (under the leadership of Jerry Blavat), and is now brokered-time New World Radio.
Four universities operate radio stations. Temple University is home to 90.1FM. WXPN 88.5 FM is operated by the University of Pennsylvania. WKDU 91.7 FM is Drexel University's student operated free-format station and WEXP 1600 AM is La Salle University Radio.
For a more complete listing of Philadelphia area radio stations, see: List of radio stations in the Philadelphia market.

See also
Music of Philadelphia
Philadelphia in film and television

Museums, art collections, and sites of interest
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Elfreth's Alley
Kimmel Center interior, Verizon Hall in middle, Perelman Theater near left, September 2005.30th Street Station
Academy of Natural Sciences
Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum
American Museum of Jewish History & Historic Mikveh Israel Synagogue.
Atwater-Kent Municipal Museum
Awbury Arboretum
Barnes Foundation
Bartram's Garden
Betsy Ross House
Boathouse Row
Cathedral-Basilica of Sts. Peter and Paul
Centennial Arboretum
Christ Church
Clark Park in West Philadelphia features the only known life-sized statue of Charles Dickens in the world.
Curtis Hall Arboretum in Wyncote, Pennsylvania
Eastern State Penitentiary
Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site
Elfreth's Alley
Fairmount Park
Fairmount Water Works and its interpretive center
Fort Mifflin
Franklin Institute
Gazela Primero Philadelphia's historic Tall Ship.
Gloria Dei National Historic Site, built in 1700, is the oldest church in the state.
The Horticulture Center (Philadelphia)
Independence Seaport Museum[4]
Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, home of the Philadelphia Orchestra, one of America's "Big Five" orchestras and regarded as one of the best symphonic orchestras in the world.
La Salle University Art Museum[5]
Liberty Bell & Independence Hall
LOVE Park
Mummers Museum
Mütter Museum of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia (museum of medical and pathological oddities and curiosities)
National Constitution Center
New Alhambra Sports and Entertainment Center (formerly ECW Arena)
One Liberty Place
Penn's Landing
Philadelphia City Hall
Philadelphia Doll Musuem
Italian market
Philadelphia Museum of Art houses outstanding collections of European and Asian art.
Philadelphia Zoo
Please Touch Museum
Reading Terminal Market
Rittenhouse Square
Rodin Museum (largest collection of Auguste Rodin's works outside France)
Rosenbach Museum & Library
SEPTA Museum
South Street
Toynbee tiles
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
Wagner Free Institute of Science
Walnut Street Theatre, the oldest operating theatre in America
Wanamaker Organ, largest operating pipe organ in the world
See also: List of sites of interest in Philadelphia

Sports
Club Sport League Championships Venue
Philadelphia Eagles American Football National Football League; NFC 3 (1948, 1949, 1960) Lincoln Financial Field
Philadelphia Flyers Ice Hockey National Hockey League; Eastern 2 (1973-74, 1974-75) Wachovia Center
Philadelphia Phillies Baseball Major League Baseball; NL 1 (1980) Citizens Bank Park
Philadelphia 76ers Basketball National Basketball Association; Eastern 2 (1966-67, 1982-83) Wachovia Center
Philadelphia Phantoms Ice Hockey American Hockey League 2 (1997-98, 2004-05) Wachovia Spectrum
Philadelphia Wings Indoor Lacrosse National Lacrosse League 6 (1989, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2001) Wachovia Center
Philadelphia Barrage Field Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse 1 (2004) Villanova Stadium
Philadelphia Soul Arena football Arena Football League 0 Wachovia Center
Philadelphia KiXX Indoor soccer Major Indoor Soccer League 1 (2001-02) Wachovia Spectrum
Philadelphia has a long and proud history of professional sports teams. Philadelphia sports fans have a reputation of being devoted to their teams in good times and in bad. Of late Philadelphia teams have been performing well, but frequently missing championships by failing during the crucial stages. Some locals half-jokingly attribute this to the Curse of Billy Penn. The city's last major championship came in 1983, when the 76ers swept the Los Angeles Lakers in the NBA Finals. The Philadelphia Wings, the local National Lacrosse League team, won six championships between 1989 and 2001.
The Eagles, Phillies, Flyers, and 76ers have each recently had new venues built for them. The Eagles currently play at Lincoln Financial Field (known informally as "The Linc"), built in 2003. The Phillies now play at Citizens Bank Park (2004). The Flyers and 76ers share the Wachovia Center (formerly the CoreStates Center (1996-1998), then the First Union Center (1998-2003) - still affectionately referred to as the "F.U. Center" by fans) (1996) with the Philadelphia Wings (National Lacrosse League) and the Philadelphia Soul (Arena Football League) arena football team. The Wachovia Spectrum (1967) is now home to the Flyers' top farm team, the Philadelphia Phantoms (American Hockey League), and the Philadelphia KiXX (Major Indoor Soccer League), an Indoor soccer team.
The Philadelphia Barrage (Major League Lacrosse) play at Villanova University's stadium, in Villanova, Pennsylvania (Delaware County), just outside Philadelphia to the west. Philadelphia also hosts the annual Army-Navy football game, now played at Lincoln Financial Field.
Philadelphia can also lay claim to being the only North American city to have all of its teams from the four major sports leagues (Eagles, Flyers, Phillies and 76ers) to play for their respective championships in one calendar year, 1980. However, only the Phillies were able to claim a championship, defeating the Kansas City Royals in six games in the 1980 World Series. The Eagles lost to the Oakland Raiders, 27-10, in Super Bowl XV, while the Flyers fell to the New York Islanders in six games in the Stanley Cup Finals and the 76ers lost to the Los Angeles Lakers in the NBA Finals in six games, as well. Nevertheless, the year 1980 in Philadelphia sports was indeed a magical one, a feat that no other city has been able to match.
Philadelphia has also been home to the Philadelphia Athletics (MLB, now the Oakland Athletics), and the Philadelphia Warriors (NBA, now the Golden State Warriors). The city's first NFL team was the Frankford Yellow Jackets (Frankford being a neighborhood in Northeast Philadelphia); the club disbanded in the 1931 season, but re-emerged under the same ownership two years later as the Philadelphia Eagles.
The Manayunk area is home to the annual USPRO bicycle race, which is the US road-racing national championship. The main feature of the race is the "Manayunk Wall", an inclined street including all of Levering Avenue and a few blocks of Lyceum Avenue. The race has been largely credited with the economic revival of the neighborhood, and cycling is a prominent theme of many of the shops and restaurants in the area.
Philadelphia is also home to the Big Five, a unique basketball rivalry among five local universities: Temple, St. Joe's, Penn, Villanova, and La Salle. Originating in 1955, the Big Five have played many of their games at the Palestra, Penn's venerable gymnasium. In the past, fans would throw streamers of their school's colors onto the court when their team scored its first points. Big Five games are notoriously hard-fought, close-scoring games with the outcomes providing bragging rights for the winning schools until the next year's matchup.
Philadelphia hosts the annual Penn Relays, held at Franklin Field, the largest early-season track and field meet in the U.S. It is also home of the annual Dad Vail Regatta, the largest intercollegiate rowing event in the U.S., and the Stotesbury Cup Regatta [6], both held on the Schuylkill River.
Philadelphia is considering a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics. There are also plans to add a Major League Soccer team as early as 2007, with a new stadium being planned in the nearby suburb of Glassboro, New Jersey; the stadium would be part of the campus of Rowan University and is set to open in 2009.

See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports

Crime
Like many American cities, Philadelphia saw a gradual, yet pronounced, rise in crime in the years following World War II. Murders peaked at 503 in 1990, for a rate of 31.5 per 100,000, and they averaged around 400 a year for most of the nineties. In 2002 the murder count hit a low of 288, but by 2005 the annual total had surged to 380, for a rate of 25.85 per 100,000.
According to statistics from 2004, there were 5,513.5 crimes per 100,000 people in Philadelphia. In 2005, going by these statistics, Philadelphia was ranked by Morgan Quitno as the sixth-most dangerous American city with a population of over 500,000, out of a total of 32 such cities. Among its neighboring Northeastern cities in the same population group, Washington, DC and Baltimore were ranked second- and third- most dangerous, while New York City was ranked fourth-safest; Camden, New Jersey, across the Delaware River from Philadelphia, was ranked most-dangerous overall.

See also
Article detailing the rise in homicides in 2005
Philadelphia Police Department

Telecommunications
Southeastern Pennsylvania has been served the 215 area code since 1947 when the North American Numbering Plan went into effect. The area covered by the code was severely truncated when area code 610 was split from 215. Today only the city and its northern suburbs are covered by 215. Overlay code 267 was added to the 215 service area in 1997.

Government and politics
Presidential election results Year Republican Democratic
2004 19.3% 130,099 80.4% 542,205
2000 18.0% 100,959 80.0% 449,182
1996 16.0% 85,345 77.5% 412,988
1992 20.9% 133,328 68.2% 434,904
1988 32.5% 219,053 66.6% 449,566
1984 34.6% 267,178 64.9% 501,369
1980 34.0% 244,108 58.7% 421,253
1976 32.0% 239,000 66.3% 494,579
1972 43.4% 340,096 55.1% 431,736
1968 30.0% 254,153 61.8% 525,768
1964 26.2% 239,733 73.4% 670,645
1960 31.8% 291,000 68.0% 622,544
See also: List of mayors of Philadelphia
From a governmental perspective, Philadelphia County is a legal nullity, as all county functions were assumed by the city in 1952, which has been coterminous with the county since 1854.
The city is headed by an elected mayor who is limited to two consecutive four-year terms but can run for the position again after an intervening term. The incumbent is former Philadelphia City Council President John F. Street (D), elected in 1999 and re-elected by a larger majority in 2003. Philadelphia's mayors have been Democrats since 1952.
The legislative branch, the Philadelphia City Council, consists of ten council members representing individual districts and seven members elected at large. The current council president is Anna C. Verna.
The Philadelphia County Court of Common Pleas, also known as the Court of Common Pleas for the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania, is the trial court of general jurisdiction for Philadelphia. It is funded and operated largely by city resources and employees.
The Philadelphia Municipal Court handles matters of limited jurisdiction as well as landlord-tenant disputes, appeals from traffic court, preliminary examinations for felony-level offenses, and the like. Traffic Court is a court of special jurisdiction that hears violations of traffic laws.
Pennsylvania's three appellate courts also have sittings in Philadelphia. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, the court of last resort in the state, regularly hears arguments in Philadelphia City Hall. Also, the Superior Court of Pennsylvania and the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania sit in Philadelphia several times a year. Judges for these courts are elected at large. Each court has a prothonotary's office in Philadelphia as well.
From the American Civil War until the mid-20th Century, Philadelphia was a bastion of the Republican Party, which arose from the staunch pro-Northern views of Philadelphia residents during and after the war. After the Great Depression, Democratic registrations increased, but the city was not carried by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his landslide victory of 1932 (in which Pennsylvania was one of the few states won by Herbert Hoover). While other Northern industrial cities were electing Democratic mayors in the 1930s and 1940s, Philadelphia did not follow suit until 1951. That is, Philadelphia never had a "New Deal" coalition. Since then, the city has not voted for a Republican in any Presidential election, despite the frequent election of Republicans to statewide offices since the 1930s; in 2004, Democrat John Kerry drew 80% of the city's vote, despite only narrowly winning Pennsylvania.
As of November 2004, 16.5% of registered voters in Philadelphia were Republicans, 74.9% Democrats, and 8.6% other or unaffiliated.

Education

Public schools
All of Philadelphia is served by the School District of Philadelphia.

Private schools
William Penn Charter School was founded by Penn in 1683, and is the oldest Quaker school in the nation. Philadelphia is home to the most extensive Catholic education system in the nation. Along with hundreds of parish-based elementary schools, there are also twelve Catholic high schools within the city ranging from Archdiocesan high schools to private Catholic high schools. All of the Catholic schools are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia.

See also: Philadelphia Catholic League

Higher education
Philadelphia is one of the largest college towns in the U.S., with over 120,000 college and university students enrolled within the city limits and nearly 300,000 in the metropolitan area.
Colleges and Universities within the city:
The Art Institute of Philadelphia [7]
Chestnut Hill College
Community College of Philadelphia
Curtis Institute of Music
Drexel University
Holy Family University
La Salle University
Moore College of Art
Peirce College [8]
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
Philadelphia University
The Restaurant School
Saint Joseph's University
Temple University
Thomas Jefferson University
University of the Arts
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
University of Pennsylvania
  Colleges and universities near Philadelphia include:
Arcadia University (formerly Beaver College), in Glenside
Bryn Athyn College of the New Church [9], in Bryn Athyn
Bryn Mawr College, in Bryn Mawr
Bucks County Community College, with campuses in Newtown and Perkasie
Cabrini College, in Radnor
Delaware County Community College [10], located in Marple Township
Delaware Valley College, in Doylestown
Eastern University (formerly Eastern College), in St. Davids
Gratz College [11], in Melrose Park
Haverford College, in Haverford
Immaculata University, in Malvern
Lehigh University, in Bethlehem
Lincoln University, located in Lincoln University
Manor College, in Jenkintown
Montgomery County Community College, in Blue Bell
Neumann College, in Aston
Pennsylvania State University, in Abington, Media and a graduate campus in Malvern
Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, in Wyncote
Rosemont College, in Bryn Mawr
Swarthmore College, in Swarthmore
Temple University, in Ambler
Temple University's Tyler School of Art, in Elkins Park
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (School of Osteopathic Medicine), in Stratford
Ursinus College, in Collegeville
Villanova University, in Villanova
West Chester University of Pennsylvania, in West Chester
Widener University, in Chester

Transportation
30th Street Station, with Cira Centre in the background and statues on the Market Street Bridge over Schuylkill River in the foreground.Philadelphia is served by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), which operates buses, trains, rapid transit, trolleys, and trackless trolleys throughout Philadelphia and the four Pennsylvania suburban counties of Bucks, Chester, Delaware, and Montgomery.
One of the 7 SEPTA Regional Rail lines offers direct service to the Philadelphia International Airport, while another line runs south to Wilmington and Newark, Delaware.
Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is a major railroad station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, which offers access to Amtrak, SEPTA, and New Jersey Transit lines.
PATCO provides rapid transit service to Camden, Collingswood, Haddonfield, Woodcrest (Cherry Hill), Ashland (Voorhees), and Lindenwold, New Jersey, from stations on Locust Street between 16th and 15th, 13th and 12th, and 10th and 9th Streets, and on Market Street at 8th Street.

Airports
Two airports serve Philadelphia, Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) in Tinicum Township, Delaware County, and Northeast Philadelphia Airport (PNE) a general aviation reliever airport in Northeast Philadelphia. Philadelphia International Airport provides scheduled domestic and international air service, while Northeast Philadelphia Airport serves general and corporate aviation.

Roads
Interstate 95 (I-95), which runs through the city along the Delaware River, is the main north-south artery.
The city is also served by Interstate 76, the Schuylkill Expressway, which runs along the Schuylkill River. It meets the Pennsylvania Turnpike at King of Prussia, providing access to Harrisburg and points west.
Interstate 676, the Vine Street Expressway, was completed in 1991 after years of planning. A link between I-95 and I-76, it runs below street level through Center City, connecting to the Ben Franklin Bridge at its eastern end.
Roosevelt Boulevard and the Roosevelt Expressway (U.S. Route 1) connect Northeast Philadelphia with Center City. The boulevard was built for the Lincoln Highway as part of the City Beautiful movement. In recent years, it has become a traffic bottleneck, and includes the second and third deadliest intersections in the U.S. within a single mile, according to a study by State Farm Insurance.
The Woodhaven Expressway (PA 63), built in 1966, serves the neighborhoods of Northeast Philadelphia, running between Interstate 95 and the Roosevelt Boulevard (U.S. Route 1). Plans to extend it westward into the suburbs were quashed by community opposition when the highway was first built. Severe traffic congestion over the past four decades on adjoining Byberry Road has led to renewed plans for extension and expansion. Several suggested plans would expand different roads using different methods to connect to the highway. A final decision has not yet been reached, and undoubtedly the construction phase will continue for several years after the planning stage is completed.
The Delaware River Port Authority operates four bridges in the Philadelphia area across the Delaware River to New Jersey: the Walt Whitman Bridge (I-76), the Benjamin Franklin Bridge (I-676 and US 30), the Betsy Ross Bridge (NJ 90), and the Commodore Barry Bridge (US 322). The Tacony-Palmyra Bridge connects PA 73 with NJ 73, and is maintained by the Burlington County Bridge Commission.
Other planned freeways have been cancelled, such as an Interstate 695 running southwest from downtown, and a freeway upgrade of Roosevelt Boulevard.

Not all highways important to Philadelphia cross into the city limits. The Pennsylvania Turnpike bypasses the city to the north, and the New Jersey Turnpike, the main highway connection to New York City and points beyond, bypasses the city to the east and south.

References
Woodhaven Road Project
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Philadelphia Region

Rail
Suburban StationMain article: History of Rail transport in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Since the early days of rail transport in the United States, Philadelphia has served as hub for several major rail companies, especially the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) and the Reading Railroad (Reading). The PRR first operated Broad Street Station, then 30th Street Station and Suburban Station, and the Reading operated out of Reading Terminal, now part of the Pennsylvania Convention Center. The two companies also operated competing commuter rail systems in the area, known collectively as the Regional Rail system. The two systems today, for the most part still intact but now connected, operate as a single system under the control of SEPTA, the regional transit authority.
Philadelphia is also notable as one of the few North American cities to maintain streetcar lines. In addition to "subway-surface" trolleys (so called because during the years when the city was served by over 2000 trolleys and more than 65 lines, these were the "surface" cars that ran also in the subway), the city recently re-introduced the Girard Avenue Line, Route 15; considered by some a "heritage" line, its use of rebuilt 1947 streetcars was primarily for budgetary reasons, rather than as an historic tribute.
Today Philadelphia is a hub of the semi-nationalized Amtrak system, with 30th Street Station being the primary local stop on the Washington-Boston Northeast Corridor and the Keystone Corridor to Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. 30th Street also serves as a major station for services via the PRR's former Pennsylvania Main Line to Chicago, Illinois. 30th Street is Amtrak's third-busiest station in terms of passengers as of FY 2003. It is also a terminus of New Jersey Transit's Atlantic City Line.

For more information on Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, please visit
Wikipedia.